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Citing Sources: APA Style

Use this guide as a resource when you cite sources.

APA: References page

APA (American Psychological Association) style is typically used in the social sciences.  Below are very basic examples of the style for a book and a journal article, so be sure to go to the resources listed to get formatting guidelines for the vast variety of other types of sources.

References

Book, generic format:

AuthorLastname, First Initial. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.

Book, specific example:

Falk, G. (2010). The American criminal justice system: How it works, how it doesn't,
and how to fix it. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

 

Journal article from database, generic format:

AuthorLastname, First Initial. (Date). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue),

pages. doi:xxxxxx

Journal article from database, specific example:

Erickson, S. R., & Workman, P. (2014). Services provided by community pharmacies

in Wayne County, Michigan: A comparison by ZIP code characteristics. Journal Of The American Pharmacists Association: Japha, 54(6), 618-624. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2014.14105

Tips

  • Alphabetize entries on the References page.
  • Double space and use hanging indents (see formatting instructions below).

Resources

Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide

APA Exposed (an Online Tutorial from Harvard)

Citing Images in APA (from State College of Florida)

KnightCite Citation Generator

APA: In-Text Citations

When quoting sources, APA format uses an author/year/page method of citation.  The author's last name is given in the text of your writing followed by the year of publication in parentheses, with the page number in parentheses after the quote.  For example:

When speaking of successful people, Gladwell (2008) states "what truly distinguishes their histories is not their extraordinary talent but their extraordinary opportunities" (p. 81).

Other notes:

  • Once cited in-text, the source must appear in the References page.
  • Quotes longer than 40 words do not require quotation marks, but should instead be indented 1/2 inch from the left margin.
  • The page number is preceded by a 'p.'
  • When paraphrasing only author/year is required, though giving the page number is encouraged.
  • For more detailed information consult:

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)